Volume 2, Issue 3, September 2017, Page: 96-106
The Mechanism of Surfactant Assisted Dispersion of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Polyvinylpyrrolidone Solutions
Tennison Yu, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Western University, London, Canada
Jose Efrain Herrera, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Western University, London, Canada
Received: Jun. 9, 2017;       Accepted: Jun. 26, 2017;       Published: Jul. 27, 2017
DOI: 10.11648/j.css.20170203.12      View  2159      Downloads  141
Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are an extremely attractive material due to their unmatched electronic, mechanical, and thermal properties, however; their hydrophobicity results in strong van der Waals interactions. This, combined with extremely high aspect ratios and flexibility, causes SWNTs to adhere strongly into tightly bundled ropes. In these bundles, SWNTs are not as useful as their linearized unbundled equivalents. In this contribution, the characterization of a system containing SWNTS, centrimonium bromide (CTAB) and the polymer, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is reported. Results indicate that although individually CTAB and PVP are poor dispersants of SWNTs, together they show a synergic effect. Characterizations studies on the obtained SWNT dispersions suggest that the polymer hydrodynamic radius should have a minimum length that corresponds to intertube separation distance to achieve stable nanotube dispersions and that the effective polymer contact area with the suspended nanotube, rather than the polymer molecular weight regulates ability for SWNT dispersion. The results present a series of considerations that are relevant for the use of polymers as nanotube dispersing agents and an overall facile way of augmenting current dispersion techniques, potentially allowing for increased usage of applications of these versatile materials.
Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs), Dispersion, Surfactant, Polymers, Rheology, Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide (CTAB), Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)
To cite this article
Tennison Yu, Jose Efrain Herrera, The Mechanism of Surfactant Assisted Dispersion of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Polyvinylpyrrolidone Solutions, Colloid and Surface Science. Vol. 2, No. 3, 2017, pp. 96-106. doi: 10.11648/j.css.20170203.12
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
K. Soma, T. K. Radhakrishnan, and J. Sarat Chandra Babu, “Carbon nanotubes: Their role in engineering applications and challenges ahead” Inorganic and Nano-Metal Chemistry vol. 47, pp. 188-196, 2017.
M. M. Shulaker, H. Wei, S. Mitra, and H. S. P. Wong, “Carbon Nanotubes for Monolithic 3 D ICs” in Carbon Nanotubes for Interconnects, Process, Design and Applications, A. Todri-Sanial, J. Dijon, and A. Maffucci, Springer International Publishing, Switzerland, 2017, pp. 315-333.
L. Feng, K. Li, B. Xue, Q. Fu, and L. Zhang, “Optimizing matrix and fiber/matrix interface to achieve combination of strength, ductility and toughness in carbon nanotube-reinforced carbon/carbon composites”, Materials & Design, vol. 113, pp. 9-16, 2017.
M. I. Sajid, U. Jamshaid, T. Jamshaid, N. Zafar, H. Fessi, and A. Elaissari, “Carbon nanotubes from synthesis to in vivo biomedical applications, International Journal of Pharmaceutics”, International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 501, pp. 278-299, 2016.
Z. Zhuang, S. A. Giles, J. Zheng, G. R. Jenness, S. Caratzoulas, D. G. Vlachos, and Y. Yan, “Nickel supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes as hydrogen oxidation reaction catalyst in alkaline electrolyte” Nature communications vol. 7, 2016.
C. J. Shih, S. Lin, M. S. Strano, and D. Blankschtein, "Understanding the stabilization of single-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene in ionic surfactant aqueous solutions: large-scale coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation-assisted DLVO theory." Journal of Physical Chemistry C vol. 119, pp. 1047-1060, 2015.
Y. Tan, and D. E. Resasco, “Dispersion of single-walled carbon nanotubes of narrow diameter distribution” Journal of Physical Chemistry B vol. 109, pp. 144541 4460, 2005.
N. Nakashima, and T. Shiraki, “Solubilisation technologies of carbon nanotubes”, International Polymer Science and Technology, vol. 43, T 1, 2016.
V. C. Moore, M. S. Strano, E. H. Haroz, R. H. Hauge, R. E. Smalley, J. Schmidt, and Y. Talmon, “Individually Suspended Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Various Surfactants” Nanoletters vol. 3, pp. 1379-1382, 2003.
L. Jiang, L. Gao, and J. Sun, “Production of aqueous colloidal dispersions of carbon nanotubes” J. Colloid Interface Sci. vol. 260, pp. 89-94, 2003.
K. Yurekli, C. A. Mitchell, and R. Krishnamoorti, “Small-Angle Neutron Scattering from Surfactant-Assisted Aqueous Dispersions of Carbon Nanotubes” J. Am. Chem. Soc. Vol. 126, pp. 9902-9903, 2004.
S. K. Samanta, M. Fritsch, U. Scherf, W. Gomulya, S. Z. Bisri, and M. A. Loi, “Conjugated polymer-assisted dispersion of single-wall carbon nanotubes: the power of polymer wrappin”, Accounts of chemical research vol. 47, pp. 2446-2456, 2014.
M. J. O'Connell, P. Boul, L. M. Ericson, C. Huffman, Y. Wang, E. Haroz, and R. E. Smalley, “Reversible water-solubilization of single-walled carbon nanotubes by polymer wrapping”, Chem. Phys. Lett. vol. 342, pp. 265-271, 2001.
A. Maity, S. Sinha Ray, and M. J. Hato, “The bulk polymerisation of N-vinylcarbazole in the presence of both multi- and single-walled carbon nanotubes: A comparative study“, Polymer vol. 49, pp. 2857-2865, 2008.
M. Zheng, A. Jagota, E. D. Semke, B. A. Diner, R. S. Mclean, S. R. Lustig, R. E. Richardson, and N. G. Tassi, “DNA-assisted dispersion and separation of carbon nanotubes“, Nat. Mater. vol. 2, pp. 338-342, 2003.
Y. Dror, W. Pyckhout-Hintzen, and Y. Cohen, “Conformation of polymers dispersing single-walled carbon nanotubes in water: A small-angle neutron scattering study“, Macromolecules, vol. 38, pp. 7828- 7836, 2005.
M. Granite, A. Radulescu, and Y. Cohen, "Small-angle neutron scattering from aqueous dispersions of single-walled carbon nanotubes with Pluronic F 127 and poly (vinylpyrrolidone)", Langmuir vol. 28.30, pp. 11025-11031, 2012.
I. Cotiuga, F. Picchioni, U. S. Agarwal, D. Wouters, J. Loos, and P. J. Lemstra, “Block‐Copolymer‐Assisted solubilization of carbon nanotubes and exfoliation monitoring through viscosity”, Macromolecular rapid communications vol. 27, pp. 1073-1078, 2006.
K. Tsuchiya, K. Uchida, Y. Kaminosono, K., Shimizu, T. Ishii, and H. Yajima, “High purity and yield separation of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes dispersed in aqueous solutions with density gradient ultracentrifugation using mixed dispersants of polysaccharides and surfactants”, Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol 52 (3 R), pp. 035102, 2013.
J. Ning, J. Zhang, Y. Pan, and J. Guo, “Surfactants assisted processing of carbon nanotube-reinforced SiO2 matrix composites” Ceramics International, vol. 30, pp. 63-67, 2004.
T. J. Davis, and J. E. Herrera, “The Role of Single Walled Carbon Nanotube Debundling on Their Effective Reinforcement of Chitosan-Polyvinylpyrrolidone Hydrogels” JNAN vol. 5, pp. 247-254, 2015.
J. J. Filliben, and J. E. McKinney, “Confidence limits for the abscissa of intersection of two linear regressions “, National Bureau of Standards, 1972.
M. J. O'Connell, S. M. Bachilo, C. B. Huffman, V. C. Moore, M. S. Strano, E. H. Haroz, K. L. Rialon, P. J. Boul, W. H. Noon, C. Kittrell, J. Ma, R. H. Hauge, R. B. Weisman, and R. E. Smalley, “Band gap fluorescence from individual single-walled carbon nanotubes”, Science vol. 297, pp. 593-596, 2002.
C. Clasen, J. P. Plog, W-M. Kulicke, M. Owens, C. Macosko, L. E. Scriven, M. Verani, and G. H. McKinley, “How dilute are dilute solutions in extensional flows?.”, Journal of Rheology vol. 50, pp. 849-881, 2006.
W. W. Graessley, “Polymer chain dimensions and the dependence of viscoelastic properties on concentration, molecular weight and solvent power”, Polymer vol. 21, pp. 258-262, 1980.
D. P. Norwood, E. Minatti, and W. F. Reed, “Surfactant/polymer assemblies. 1. Surfactant binding properties.” Macromolecules vol. 31, pp. 2957-2965, 1998.
J. Desbrieres, R. Borsali, M. Rinaudo, and M. Milas, “chi-F Interaction parameter and the single-chaindiffusion coefficients of dextran/poly (vinylpyrrolidone)/water: dynamic light scattering experiments.” Macromolecules vol. 26, pp. 2592-2596, 1993.
Y. Kim, and H. Kim, “Effect of extensional properties of polymer solutions on the droplet formation via ultrasonic atomization“, Polym. Eng. Sci. vol. 51, pp. 2446-2452, 2011.
J. Hilding, E. A. Grulke, Z. G. Zhang, and F. Lockwood, “Dispersion of carbon nanotubes in liquids”, J. Dispers. Sci. Technol. Vol. 24, pp. 1-41, 2003.
A. J. Blanch, C. E. Lenehan, and J. S. Quinton, “Parametric analysis of sonication and centrifugation variables for dispersion of single walled carbon nanotubes in aqueous solutions of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate”, Carbon vol. 49, pp. 5213-5228, 2011.
V. G. Hadjiev, M. N. Iliev, S. Arepalli, P. Nikolaev, and B. S. Files,). “Raman scattering test of single-wall carbon nanotube composites” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 78, pp. 3193-3195, 2001.
D. A. Heller, R. M. Mayrhofer, S. Baik, Y. V. Grinkova, M. L. Usrey, and M. S. Strano “Concomitant length and diameter separation of single-walled carbon nanotubes“, J. Am. Chem. Soc. Vol. 126, pp. 14567-14573, 2004.
M. F. Islam, E. Rojas, D. M. Bergey, A. T. Johnson, and A. G. Yodh, “High weight fraction surfactant solubilization of single-wall carbon nanotubes in water”, Nano Lett. vol. 3, pp. 269-273, 2003.
K. Shirahama, K. Mukae, and H. A. Iseki,. “A cationic surfactant is bound to poly (vinylpyrrolidone) in high pH media” Colloid Polym. Sci. vol. 272, pp. 493-496, 1994.
G. Wang, and G. Olofsson, “Titration calorimetric study of the interaction between ionic surfactants and uncharged polymers in aqueous solution” J. Phys. Chem. B vol. 102, pp. 9276-9283, 1998.
R. Bury, B. Desmazières, and C. Treiner, “Interactions between poly (vinylpyrrolidone) and ionic surfactants at various solid/water interfaces: a calorimetric investigation” Colloids Surf. Physicochem. Eng. Asp. vol. 127, pp. 113-124, 1997.
Y. Feng, X. W. Fang, S. Z. Mao, S. Zhao, H. Z., Yuan, J. Y. Yu, and R. Y. Du, “Interaction of poly (vinylpyrrolidone) with cationic and nonionic surfactants in aqueous solution studied by 1 H NMR“, Colloid Polym. Sci. vol. 281, pp. 902-906, 2003.
X. Qi, P. Wang, L. Ji, X. Tan, and L. Ouyang, “Dispersion of carbon nanotubes in aqueous solution with cationic surfactant CTAB”, J. Inorg. Mater. vol. 22, pp. 1122-1126, 2007.
J. N. Smith, J. Meadows, and P. A. Williams, “Adsorption of polyvinylpyrrolidone onto polystyrene lattices and the effect on colloid stability”, Langmuir vol. 12, pp. 3773-3778, 1996.
E. Nativ-Roth, R. Shvartzman-Cohen, C. Bounioux, M. Florent, D. Zhang, I. Szleifer, and R. Yerushalmi-Rozen, “Physical adsorption of block copolymers to SWNT and MWNT: A nonwrapping mechanism”, Macromolecules vol. 40, pp. 3676-3685, 2007.
R. Bandyopadhyaya, E. Nativ-Roth, O. Regev, and R. Yerushalmi-Rozen, “Stabilization of individual carbon nanotubes in aqueous solutions,” Nanoletters, vol. 2, pp. 25-28, 2002.
T. Geike, and V. L. Popov, “Mapping of three-dimensional contact problems into one dimension”, Phys. Rev. vol. E 76, pp. 036710, 2007.
Browse journals by subject